The highest incidence of snakebite in Africa occurs in the West African savanna region. In this region, saw-scaled or carpet vipers (E. ocellatus, E. leucogaster, E. jogeri), spitting cobras (Naja nigricollis and N. katiensis) and puff adders (Bitis arietans) are common causes of serious envenoming.
Throughout eastern and southern Africa, the puff adder is thought to be responsible for most cases of serious envenoming, followed by the cytotoxic spitting cobras (Naja mossambica, N. nigricincta and N. nigricollis). The mambas (D. polylepis and D. angusticeps) and Cape cobra (N. nivea) (south-western regions), which are neurotoxic, cause few bites but with a high case fatality (Warrell, 1995; Warrell, 1999).
Source: Pages 29 and 30 of the WHO Guidelines